The improvement in medical techniques has drastically modified the practice of care in oncology. Supportive care, geared towards supporting patients with chronic illnesses, now occupies a greater place alongside treatments aimed at survival. These changes have conducted some health care professionals to be more interested in patients’ quality of life and, in particular, to the impact of cancer on sexuality. Repercussions on sexuality are actually one of the most problematic aspects of patients’ quality of life post cancer. The aim of this paper is to draw up a review of the English and French literature on this “new” concern which still seems to raise many challenges in practice. Our review emphasizes that despite the recognition of the importance of addressing sexuality issues post cancer in oncology, in their practices, physicians as the nurses alike find it difficult to address. In addition, it underlines that the dominant social representations of sexuality – in terms of gender, sexual orientation and age – have permeated health care professionals’ subjectivities and, at the same time, influence how sexuality is address and interfere with a systematic discussion of these issues throughout the care process. Our discussion tackles the lack of psychologists, both in research and clinic, regarding these issues. Finally, our conclusion highlights the contributions of psychology facing issue posed by sexuality in oncology.