Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial polyesters synthesized by PHA synthase. Naturally occurring PHA copolymers possess a random monomer sequence. The development of PhaCAR, a unique sequence-regulating PHA synthase, has enabled the spontaneous biosynthesis of PHA block copolymers. PhaCAR synthesizes both a block copolymer poly(2-hydroxybutyrate)-b-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(2HB)-b-P(3HB)], and a random copolymer, poly(3HB-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), indicating that the combination of monomers determines the monomer sequence. Therefore, in this study, we explored the substrate scope of PhaCAR and the monomer sequences of the resulting copolymers to identify the determinants of the monomer sequence. PhaCAR is a class I PHA synthase that is thought to incorporate long-main-chain hydroxyalkanoates (LMC HAs, >C3 in the main [backbone] chain). Thus, the LMC monomers, 4-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (4H2MB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV), and 6-hydroxyhexanoate (6HHx), as well as 2HB, 3HB, and 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) were tested. Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring PhaCAR, CoA transferase and CoA ligase genes was used for PHA production. The medium contained the monomer precursors, 2HB, 3HB, 3HP, 4H2MB, 5HV, and 6HHx, either individually or in combination. As the result, homopolymers were obtained only for 3HB and 3HP. Moreover, 3HB and 3HP were randomly copolymerized by PhaCAR. 3HB-based binary copolymers P(3HB-co-LMC HA)s containing up to 2.9 mol% 4H2MB, 4.8 mol% 5HV, or 1.8 mol% 6HHx were produced. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the copolymers indicated that P(3HB-co-LMC HA)s had a random sequence. In contrast, combining 3HP and 2HB induced the synthesis of P(3HP)-b-P(2HB). Similarly, P(2HB) segment-containing block copolymers P(3HB-co-LMC HA)-b-P(2HB)s were synthesized. Binary copolymers of LMC HAs and 2HB were not obtained, indicating that the 3HB or 3HP unit is essential to the polymer synthesis. PhaCAR possesses a wide substrate scope towards 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-hydroxyalkanoates. 3HB or 3HP units are essential for polymer synthesis using PhaCAR. The presence of a 2HB monomer is key to synthesizing block copolymers, such as P(3HP)-b-P(2HB) and P(3HB-co-LMC HA)-b-P(2HB)s. The copolymers that did not contain 2HB units had a random sequence. This study’s results provide insights into the mechanism of sequence regulation by PhaCAR and pave the way for designing PHA block copolymers.